Acute renal failure will occur when the kidneys stop functioning. The kidneys help remove waste products from the body and when they fail, the waste and fluid will build back up in the body which can turn deadly. Some of the causes of acute renal failure involve a sudden decrease of blood flow to the kidneys which might be the result of an injury or an infection, as well as symptoms stemming from the continuous or long-term use of medications and toxins entering the body. Swelling, little or no urine during urination, a loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea, pack pain and sleepiness are some of the more common symptoms. After the initial diagnosis, your doctor will determine if the condition is chronic or if it can be treated with dialysis and/or antibiotics.