Cystoscopy—also called cystourethroscopy—is a procedure used to see inside the bladder and urethra. The procedure is typically performed as an outpatient procedure using a local anesthetic to numb the urethra. During the process, a specialized tube with a small camera on the end is inserted into the urethra and slowly advanced into the bladder in order to identify certain infections or diseases such as cancer. If during the procedure an abnormality is found, a biopsy will be performed so that a specific condition can be diagnosed. A cystoscopy typically takes under 20 minutes to perform and for the most part is a pain-free procedure.