A cystourethrogram—also referred to as a voiding cystogram—is a procedure involving a series of x-ray tests that take pictures of the bladder and urethra while urination are occurring. In order for the procedure to successfully take place, a patient is typically catheterized so that the bladder can be filled with a radiopaque (or a contrast agent) liquid so the physician performing the procedure can see any abnormalities. The cystourethrogram test is often performed so a doctor can look within the bladder and determine why a patient may be experiencing persistent incontinence, repeated urinary tract infections, structural problems within the bladder and an enlarging of the prostate.