Hematuria—a condition that affects 10% of the general population—occurs when there is a presence of red blood cells in the urine. For some people who have hematuria, blood will be visible in the urine with the naked eye, while for others, it will be microscopic. Cases of hematuria range from very mild to extreme and are usually caused by cancers, trauma, infections and/or obstructions to the urinary tract (involving the prostate, bladder, urethra, kidneys, etc.). The most important analysis when blood is found in the urine is to test for, diagnose, or rule-out very serious cancers or other life-threatening disorders (such as prostate cancer). Once these diseases are ruled out, a recommended course of treatment, as well as close monitoring of the urine, can be provided for the patient.