Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a surgical procedure, typically performed under general or spinal anesthesia to remove kidney stones that are more than 2 cm in size. The procedure is performed by a surgeon or a urologist where a tiny incision is made through the skin and then a nephroscope is passed directly into the kidney and, if necessary, the ureter. The physician can then extract the stones from the kidney. Once the surgery is complete, a tube is inserted into the kidney to control drainage; thus, this particular procedure does require hospitalization for up to several days.