Urine normally flows in one direction—from the kidneys, through tubes called ureters, to the bladder. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the abnormal flow of urine from the bladder back into the ureters—in essence—performing a retrograde of urine flow. There are two types of vesicoureteral reflux: primary and secondary. Primary vesicoureteral reflux is when an infant is born with an impaired valve where the ureter joins the bladder. Secondary vesicoureteral reflux occurs when there is an infection, swelling or any condition that causes blockage within the urinary system leading to the retrograde of urine flow. This condition can typically be treated with antibiotics and/or surgery.